# What is Statistics

# What is Statistics?

## Definition

Statistics is a branch of Mathematics that deals with data. It may be pure Mathematics, probability, or applied Mathematics in which case it is used to organize data (Descriptive Statistics) or make predictions as to the occurrence of an event (Inferential Statistics).

## Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics employs methods and simple arithmetic that allows us to organize our data, for example **making graphs** or **calculating an average**.

## Inferential Statistics

Inferential Statistics uses methods and more complex mathematical calculations that allow us to **make inferences**, predictions. **Examples of inferential statistics** are **statistical tests** like the **t-test** or **Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)**.

In several fields, including **experimental science**, prediction take the form of a **probability statement** regarding the occurrence of a chance event, the chance event being the finding of an experiment. If the probability of that the finding or result of research is a chance event, and not the result of the experimental manipulation is small, then we conclude that the finding of our research is reliable, i.e. it is significant.

Statistics may be further categorized into *Parametric* and *Non-parametric* statistics.

## Parametric Statistics

Parametric tests are chosen to analyze data in those instances in which we know that the characteristic we are measuring is normally distributed in the population (for example nose length) and our measurement is **ratio scale of measurement** or **interval scale of measurement**. Read the print book. **Examples of parametric tests** are the **t-test** and **analysis of variance**

## Non-parametric Statistics

We choose non-parametric tests when our data are at the **nominal scale of measurement** or **ordinal scale of measurement**.

### A list of non-parametric tests

**chi-square test**

**sign test**

**Wilcoxon Signed Rank test**

**Friedman test**

**Kruskal-Wallis test**

**Mann-Whitney test**

**Mood’s Median test**

**Spearman Rank Correlation**

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## Comments

## Is statistics a scientific

Is statistics a scientific tool that tells you what causes what?

## kind of ... spend a few

kind of ... spend a few months working on this site, then ask your question again.