What is Statistics

What is Statistics?


Statistics is a branch of Mathematics that deals with data. It may be pure Mathematics, probability, or applied Mathematics in which case it is used to organize data (Descriptive Statistics) or make predictions as to the occurrence of an event (Inferential Statistics).

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics employs methods and simple arithmetic that allows us ro organize our data, for example making graphs or calculating an average.

Inferential Statistics

Inferential Statistics uses methods and more complex mathematical calculations that allow us to make inferences, predictions. Examples of inferential statistics are statistical tests like the t-test.

In several fields, including experimental science, prediction take the form of a probability statement regarding the occurrence of a chance event , the chance event being the finding of an experiment. If the probability of that the finding or result of research is a chance event, and not the result of the experimental manipulation is small, then we conclude that the finding of our research is reliable, i.e. it is significant.

Statistics may be further categorized into Parametric and Non-parametric statistics.

Parametric Statistics

Parametric tests are chosen to analyze data in those instances in which we know that the characteristic we are measuring is normally distributed in the population *for example nose length) and our measurement is ratio or interval scale.Read the print book. Examples of parametric tests are the t-testand analysis of variance

Non-parametric Statistics

We choose non-parametric tests when our data are at the nominal or ordinal scale of measurement.

A note

The criteria I applied in the selection of the best Statistics textbook for college students and researchers are drawn from the sciences that conduct research and not from theoretical Mathematics. A textbook is rated for its teaching the logic, concepts and practical aspects of Statistics. In many fields, e .g. Medical, Behavioral, or Social Sciences, the main problem students and researchers face is not analyzing their data (there are many statistical packages that do this), but the question "Which statistical test I use". To be able to do this a researcher must have a good command of the concepts and logic of statistics. Formulas will not enlighten a researcher in the choice of a statistical test or a research strategy (experimental design).

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Is statistics a scientific tool that tells you what causes what?

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kind of ... spend a few months working on this site, then ask your question again.

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